Grove was home to numerous enslaved African-American
laborers between 1790 and their emancipation in 1849.
Slave numbers varied throughout the Croghans' tenure
here. County records from 1800 indicate that William
Croghan paid taxes on twenty slaves and two white male
servants. By the 1820s, more than 40 enslaved men, women,
and children, lived and worked at Locust Grove. In 1849,
John Croghan's will listed twenty-two enslaved African-Americans
ranging from infancy to age fifty-five. These individuals
were freed under terms of a seven-year guardianship
which provided for their liberty by 1856.
Two African-American men associated with
Locust Grove made important contributions to U.S. history:
a slave owned by William Clark, was a member of the
Corps of Discovery, traveling with the expedition
to the Pacific Ocean. York was the first person of
color the western Native Americans ever had encountered.
- Stephen Bishop
was a slave at Mammoth Cave during John Croghan's
ownership of the property. As a guide he explored
previously uncharted areas of the world's most extensive
cave system and drew the famous Mammoth Cave map of
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